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Allergies are among the most common diseases in childhood. Allergic diseases are more common especially in spring. German Hospital Specialist for Child Health and Diseases View Gökçe's Full Profileshares everything you need to know about allergies.
: - definition of allergy
Dr. View Gökçe's Full Profile Allergy is an exaggerated reaction of individuals sensitive to allergens (house dust, pollen, some foods, food additives, cat - dog hair, etc.) commonly found in our environment. Genetic factors play a major role in allergic diseases. If one of the parents is allergic, the risk of allergic disease in the child is 40%, and if both the parents are allergic, it increases to 70%.
: - Which allergies are most common in the spring?
Dr. View Gökçe's Full Profile Asthma, hay fever, urticaria are the most common allergic diseases in the spring. The main symptoms of these diseases are coughing, breathing blockage, runny nose, sneezing, itching of the eyes and nose, ring formation under the eye, flushing and itching of the skin.
: - What are the causes of spring allergies?
Dr. View Gökçe's Full Profile Spring allergies often develop against pollen, grass and weeds. These people do not have a significant problem in other seasons of the year. Every year, they present with recurrent complaints in certain months (especially spring and autumn).
: - What are the ways to prevent allergies?
Dr. View Gökçe's Full Profile Avoiding contact with the allergen should be avoided at the beginning of the measures to be taken to prevent allergies. For this:
• The house and car windows should be kept closed during the pollen season.
• Washed garments should be dried indoors or in the dryer, not by hanging out.
• Shower should be taken before going to bed at night.
• Nose sprays with antihistamines and / or steorid should be started before the allergy season and should be continued during the season under the supervision of a doctor.
: - What are the other allergens that cause allergies in children?
Dr. View Gökçe's Full Profile The most common type of allergy at very young ages is food allergy. Cow milk, eggs, especially wheat, soy, peanut allergies are common. In older children, allergic asthma and fever are most common. These diseases are mostly caused by house dust mites. In the event of allergies due to house dust mites, the patient's complaints often persist throughout the year. In addition, cat - dog allergies are also seen today.
: - What should be done to prevent house dust mites?
Dr. View Gökçe's Full Profile
• Mattress, pillow, quilt should be covered with anti-allergic covers
• Linens should be washed and cleaned at 60 degrees once a week.
• Bearings should be reversed once a month.
• Carpets should be removed, furry toys and cloth-covered items should be removed from the bedroom.
• The bedroom should be ventilated frequently.
• If possible, use an air purifier in the room and filter the ventilation system.
• The air humidity should not be more than 45 - 50%.
: - Should these suggestions be applied to every family with or without allergies?
Dr. View Gökçe's Full Profile Families with a history of allergy should apply all of these recommendations. However, all parents should take care to wash the sheets at least once a week and turn the beds upside down once a month.
: - Causes of pet allergies?
Dr. View Gökçe's Full Profile Today, cat - dog allergies are common. Many people think that the hair of these animals is caused by an allergic reaction. However, studies have shown that the main allergen is a protein released from the sebaceous glands of the skin of these animals. Similar protein is found in the saliva of animals and can be transmitted to the hair by licking the animal itself. This protein is also excreted in the urine of animals. The rugs and carpets on which cats and dogs lie, the goods they use and their shelters are the places where the allergens are dense. Allergens can be found active here for 4 - 6 weeks. For this reason, it is recommended to wash the place where the animals lie and their goods with hot water every 7-14 days.
: - Could you tell us about food allergies in children?
Dr. View Gökçe's Full Profile The incidence of food allergies in children is 4-6%. It usually occurs in the first year of life. The most common allergies are foods; cow's milk, chicken eggs, soybeans, fish, wheat, peanuts and hazelnuts. Cow's milk allergy is seen in the first two years at a rate of 2 percent. Complaints are variable in food allergies. Within minutes and hours after ingestion of the food, swelling, burning, itching of the tongue, throat may occur. Redness and itching in the body, abdominal pain and diarrhea may occur. In addition, itching, discharge from the nose, watering in the eyes, asthma, and inability to weigh in infants can be encountered. The nutrients that are related to the complaints are determined by the tests and the food is removed from the patient's diet.
: - What should be done to prevent food allergies?
Dr. View Gökçe's Full Profile Children with a family history of allergy are at risk. In the event of exposure to allergen nutrients in the early period, the child becomes susceptible. Therefore, these children should be fed only with breast milk for at least 4 - 6 months. Cow's milk should be given after 1 year of age. In addition, during breastfeeding, breast milk should not avoid allergic foods such as eggs, fish, peanuts.
: - What tests are used to diagnose allergies?
Dr. View Gökçe's Full Profile Clinical findings and family history of allergy are very important in the diagnosis. In addition, non-specific laboratory investigations are performed, which inform us about the child's allergic state. It is also applied in more specific tests showing allergic substance in the blood. Another diagnostic method is skin tests. Although it is misleading under one age, it can be done at any age. A positive test was significant. However, it should be noted that; allergy tests do not show all possible allergens. Sometimes, although the clinical findings suggest allergy, the tests may be normal.
: - What is the treatment path?
Dr. View Gökçe's Full Profile Treatment is applied step by step. They have spray medications. These drugs are given in any age group. Since it is difficult to use in the form of oral spray only under one year, it is given with a mask with special devices.
: - Is the treatment administered to each patient continuously?
Dr. View Gökçe's Full Profile It depends on the degree of attack of the patients. If the patient experiences al seasonal allergy bahar only in the spring, he / she is treated in the spring. There is a break in winter. However, it is necessary to spread the treatment throughout the year as the patient's complaints continue throughout the year for allergies related to house dust mites. If the patient has only one or two episodes per year, it is used only during the episode.
: - When is the vaccine given?
Dr. View Gökçe's Full Profile Vaccine treatment is preferred in asthma. However, this treatment method is used in older children. It may also provide oral vaccination treatments for children under 2 years of age. However, this is not a very common situation. Vaccine treatments are a long process. It ranges from 3 to 5 years.
: - Is the vaccine effective in all allergies?
Dr. View Gökçe's Full Profile It is effective in uniform allergy. For example, it is effective only when the patient is allergic to pollen. If there is sensitivity to several types of allergens, the effect of the vaccine is reduced. Vaccines are also effective against one type of allergen. Vaccine against house dust mites is separate, while the vaccine against meadow and grass is separate. The most effective area is the vaccine against bee stings. Vaccination is not a 100 percent effective method. However, other medications are used to relieve the complaint while vaccination is for treatment. The effect of the vaccine is seen after at least 8-10 months.