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Clinical Psychologist Sevil Usanmaz from Anadolu Medical Center shares her emotional and social development in infants.
We cannot yet speak of excitement and emotion in a newborn. We can talk about the baby's reactions to any stimulus. These are simple responses to stimulating and non-stimulating stimuli. Sucking the mother's breast gives pleasure, the baby becomes calm and peaceful. Stimuli such as touching with a cold object and not giving pleasure such as gas pains cause the baby to move and cry. In the first weeks, when the baby is physically comfortable, suckling nipples, on the mother's lap or gently rocking, she shows signs of pleasure.
Peaceful and calm baby smiles. Smile is first seen around 6-8 weeks. But this smile is yet a reflex smile. The smile seen while sleeping shows that the baby is comfortable and peaceful. The calm and melodic voice of the mother and the lullaby singing makes the baby happy and smiles.
Social smile, that is the smile that occurs when a person sees his face, is seen only after 2 months.
From the 2nd month onwards, babies begin to observe the environment clearly and select attention to the faces approaching them. And the emotional response and smile of her mother by distinguishing her face is the first sign of the baby's emotional expression.
Anger; While some of the emotions are learned over time, love, sadness and so on. Some of them are emotions that are present from birth, such as anger, jealousy and so on. Anger is frequently seen in infants. Babies are often angry when stimuli are not met or their needs are not met. Babies react and get angry when the mother treats the baby hard and angry, does not feed enough, and gives her nipples late, and babies can hardly calm down when anger arises.
Infants causing anger:
• Nozzle - late feeding
• Trying to force-feed her while she is saturated
• Taking away your toy
• Sitting in a high chair or seat for a long time
• Wash your face with cold water
• Leave the room alone for a long time
• Nose wipe
• Acting hard-fast when removing or dressing clothes
• Sore, throat, vaccination, etc.
Fear; It is a natural reaction to events that are visible or invisible, that is, not well understood. It is a normal feeling that can be seen in every baby. Loudness in infancy, loneliness, foreign person, sudden displacement, rapid movement-elevators, swings, animals, dark room, furry toys cause fear. Babies are more afraid of stimuli than children. As babies grow, their fears diminish and only qualitatively differ. Fear behavior towards foreigners, usually between six months and one year, then gradually decreases and disappears. When an 18-month-old baby meets a stranger, he rests his head on his mother's lap or runs to his mother and leaves the stranger. When he feels safe, he only communicates with the stranger, smiles at him and reaches out.
From the age of 2, we see that fear is learned through conditioning. Why does the child fear the mother and father? When the mother constantly says, gitme Don't go there, karanlık she will be afraid of the dark. Sometimes older brothers are examples of fear behavior and they are affected by the stories told.
Basic Sense of Confidence; The period of trust or insecurity starts from birth and the first year is very important, but it remains important in all developmental stages of the child.
The sense of trust arising from the positive relationship between the baby and the mother becomes the determinant of all life and interpersonal relationships.
• The mother is the most important asset for the baby. Baby smiles while mother smiles.
• The baby becomes a calm, peaceful and smiling baby while the mother is calm, soft, caring and smiling.
• The mother is there when she needs it, and when the baby is sure that her basic needs will be met, the foundations of trust are laid.
• Babies learn that their mothers will go from time to time but will reappear.
• Babies look at their mothers face and absorb their emotions, take their emotions and reflect on their own faces.
• The mother's timely and loving response to the needs of the baby, the baby's relaxation, can eliminate the problems, provides positive communication between the baby and the mother. In nonverbal communication, the transition of emotions forms the basis of trust.
Social Development; Socialization first begins at the age of three months. When the baby is three months old, he starts to watch the people and the objects around him and to distinguish the sounds. From three months onwards, babies turn their heads when they hear human voices, recognize their mother's voice, which is no different from the reflex smile. Social smile can be regarded as the beginning of social development. Noticing other babies, laughing at them, reaching out, touching is seen at 4-5 months of age. From the sixth month onwards, we can sometimes see the first aggressive behaviors such as pulling and pushing each other's hair. When the baby is 8-9 months old, he starts to imitate sounds, simple movements, and take care of toys, shakes hands and makes head and head. At 11-12 months, she smiles at her image in the mirror, reaches out to her and kisses her image like someone else.
Starting to walk between 12-18 months, singing individual words, playing games increases the socialization of the baby. It simulates simple games, likes to go to the park with other children.
The 2-year-old child is engaged in simple activities with adults and is able to establish a social relationship with family members.
The game is very important for infants and children for emotional, mental, physical and social development and enables them to become healthy individuals.