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Attachment and factors affecting it

Attachment and factors affecting it


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Attachment develops between the child and the caregiver; It is defined as an emotional bond that is manifested by child's behavior seeking and closeness seeking behaviors, which becomes evident especially in stress situations, and is durable and persistent. It develops as a result of interaction with the environment from the early stages of life (Thompson 2002). Attachment is not limited to childhood but lasts throughout life. The first basic relationship, the mother-child relationship, is an example for the attachment in later life periods.

Connecting Models:

Secure Connectivity: The child accepts the mother as a basis of trust, can be comforted after leaving the mother and being alone with a stranger, the need for adherence to the mother is low, after being left alone, the mother welcomes the mother positively and prefers the mother clearly to the stranger.

Insecure / Avoidant Attachment: The child avoids contact with the mother, especially when the mother comes out of the room and stays away from it, she is seen in search of a contact, despite resisting the mother's efforts to make contact. Throughout the process, she treats both mother and stranger in the same way.

Insecure / Resistant Bonding: When the child leaves the mother, she becomes very cranky and when the mother comes back, her efforts to comfort the child fail. It was observed that the child sought contact and avoided contact at different times. The child may show anger and violent behavior after the mother leaves and returns and resists the efforts of contact or relaxation from the stranger.

Insecure / Messy Attachment: The child shows surprised, anxious, careless behaviors, and shows a strong avoidance behavior immediately after a strong search for intimacy. On his way to his mother, he can look in other directions and display unrelated emotional expressions.

There is not a single reason to create attachment situations; family behaviors, characteristics of the child, family and culture are effective.

Behaviors of Families: Researchers have argued that different attachment types are the result of mothers' sensitivity to the needs of their babies. It was observed that 3-month-old infants who responded immediately to their crying fell into the bağlanma secure attachment ”category at the age of 12 months (Ainsworth and Bell, 1967). In the opposite family attitudes, infants show an insecure attachment. Most studies have found similar basic results.

Features of the child: Observations have found that in addition to the need for için responsible bab parents for secure attachment, families also need “responsive” babies to perform this care. Attachment is a mutual relationship. For a party to give it, he must take it. Research has found that children who play with objects for a longer period of time instead of having a social relationship with their mothers show insecure attachment in the future (Lewis & Feiring, 1989).

Family Effects: Many factors that cause stress on families are influenced by the attachment types of infants. One of the most important factors is the low economic level. Children living at the poverty level exhibit less secure attachment than those living at the high economic level (Shaw, 1994). Another factor is marriage disputes. Those who have problems in their marriages are more likely to have children who cannot be bonded safely (Belsky & Isabella, 1988). Stressful situations create sensitivity in parents, which reduces the possibility of secure attachment. Angry and violent relationships bring uncertain behavior and families are not seen as a consistent, safe source for their children.

Cultural effects: The society in which we live is important. Sometimes society plays an important role in determining the type of attachment. For example, families living in kibbutz in Israel do not have their own parents who take care of their children even though they see them during the day. These children, who were co-raised at 11-14 months of age, showed most sadness, half fear / resistance and only 37% secure attachment when placed in a foreign environment with their families or carers (Sagi, 1985).

Utilized resources:

Thompson RA (2002) Attachment theory and research. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 3rd ed., Lewis M (Ed.) Philadelphia. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, p. 164-172.

Attachment Theory, Ertan Görgü. Çoluk Children's Journal, 49, 2005.

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